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    wto术语英文解释

    时间:2021-02-26 07:29:44来源:佩佩美文网 本文已影响 佩佩美文网手机站

    WTO 术语英文解释

    General

    GATT — General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, which has been superseded as an international organization by the WTO. An updated General Agreement is now one of the WTO ' sagreements.

    GATT 1947 — The old (pre-1994) version of the GATT.

    GATT 1994 — The new version of the General Agreem ent, incorporated into the

    WTO, which governs trade in goods.

    MFN — Most-favoured-nation treatmMem bers

    MFN — Most-favoured-nation treatm

    ent (GATT Article I, GATS Article II and TRIPS

    Article 4), the principle of not discriminating between one ' s trading

    partners.national treat ment — The principle of giving others the sam e treat ment as

    one ' sown nationals. GATT Article III requires that imports be treated no less favourably than the sam e or similar domestically-produced goods once they have

    passed custom s. GATS Article XVII and T RIPS Article 3 also deal with national treatm ent for services and intellectual property protec tion.

    TPRB, TPRM — The Trade Policy Review Body is General Council operating under

    special procedures for m eetings to review trade policies and practices of individual

    WTO m embers under the Trade

    Policy Review Mechanism.

    transparency — Degree to which trade policies and practices, and the process by

    which they are established, are open and predictable.

    Uruguay Round — Multilateral trade negotiations launched at Punta del Este,

    Uruguay in September 1986 and concluded in Geneva in Decem ber 1993. Signed by Ministers in Marrakesh, Morocco, in April 1994.

    Tariffs

    binding, bou nd — see — tariff binding II

    electronic commerce — The production, advertising, sale and distribution of products via telecommunications networks.

    free-rider — A casual term used to infer that a country which does not m ake any

    trade concessions, profits, nonetheless, from tariff cuts and concessions m ade by

    other countries in negotiations under the m ost -favoured-nation principle.

    Harmonized System — An international nomenclature developed by t he World

    Custom s Organization, which is arranged in six digit codes allowing all participating countries to classify traded goods on a common basis. Beyond the six digit level,

    countries are free to introduce national distinctions for tariffs and many othe r purposes.

    ITA — Information Technology Agreement, or form ally the Ministerial-Declaration

    on Trade in Information Technology Products, under which participants will remove tariffs on IT products by the year 2000.

    ITA II — Negotiations aimed at expanding ITA ' s product coverage.

    nuisance tariff — Tariff so low that it costs the government m ore to collect it than

    the revenue it generates.

    schedule of concessions — List of bound tariff rates.

    tariff binding — Commit ment not to increase a rate of duty beyond a n agreed level.

    Once a rate of duty is bound, it m ay not be raised without com pensating the affected

    parties.

    tariff escalation — Higher import duties on semi-processed products than on raw materials, and higher still on finished products. This practice

    discourages the development of aterials originate.on ——sensitive products, am idst

    discourages the development of aterials originate.

    on ——sensitive products, am idst

    generally low tariff levels. For industrialized countries, tariffs of 15% and above are gen erally recog ni zed as — tariff peaks II.

    tariffs — Custom s duties on merchandise imports. Levied either on an ad valorem basis (percentage of value) or on a specific basis (e.g. $7 per 100 kgs.). Tariffs give

    price advantageto similar locally-producedgoods and raise revenues for thegovernment.WCO — World Custom s Organization, through which participating countries procedures.a multilateral

    price advantage

    to similar locally-produced

    goods and raise revenues for the

    government.

    WCO — World Custom s Organization, through which participating countries procedures.

    a multilateral

    seek to simplify

    body located in Brussels

    and rationalize custom s

    Non-tariff m easures

    anti-dum ping duties — Article VI of the GATT 1994 permits the imposition of anti-dum ping duties against dumped goods, equal to the difference between their

    export price and their normal value, if dumping causes injury to producers of com peting products in the im porting country.

    circum vention — Measures taken by exporters to evade anti-dumping or countervailing duties.

    countervailing measures — Action taken by the importing country, usually in the form of increased duties to offset subsidies given to producers or exporters in the exporting country.

    dumping — Occurs when goods are exported at a price less than their normal value,

    generally meaning they are exported for less than they are sold in the domestic

    NTMs — Non-tariff m easures such as quotas, im port licensing system s, sanitary regulations, prohibitions, etc.

    price undertaking — Undertaking by an exporter to raise the export price of the product to avoid the possibility of an anti-dumping duty.

    PSI — Preshipment inspection — the practice of employing specialized private com panies to check shipment details of goods ordered overseas — i.e. price,

    quantity, quality, etc.

    QRs — Quantitative restrictions — specific limits on the quantity or value of goods

    that can be im ported (or exported) during a specific tim e period. rules of origin —

    Laws, regulations and administrative procedures which determine a product ' s

    country of origin. A decision by a custom s authority on origin can determine whether

    a shipm ent falls within a quota limitation, qualifies for a tariff preference or is affected by an anti-dum ping duty. These rules can vary from country to country.

    safeguard measures — Action taken to protect a specifi c industry from an unexpected build-up of im ports — governed by Article XIX of the GATT 1994.

    subsidy — There are two general types of subsidies: export and dom estic. An export

    subsidy is a benefit conferred on a firm by the government that is contingent on

    exports. A dom estic subsidy is a benefit not directly linked to exports.

    tariffication — Procedures relating to the agricultural market -access provision in which all non-tariff m easures are converted into tariffs.

    trade facilitation — Removing obstacles to the m ovement of goods across borders

    (e.g. simplification of custom s procedures).

    VRA, VER, OMA — Voluntary restraint arrangement, voluntary export restraint, orderly marketing arrangement. Bilateral arrangements whereby an exporting country (government or industry) agrees to reduce or restrict exports without the importing country having to m ake use of quotas, tariffs or other import controls.

    Textiles and clothing

    ATC — The WTO Agreem ent on Textiles and Clothing which integrates trade in this sector back to GATT rules within a ten-year period.

    carry forward — When an exporting country uses part of the following year ' s quota

    during the current year .

    carry over — When an exporting country utilizes the previous year ' s unutilized quota.

    circum vention — Avoiding quotas and other restrictions by altering the country of origin of a product.

    CTG — Council for Trade in Goods — oversees WTO agreements on goods, including

    the ATC.

    integration programme — The phasing out of MFA restrictions in four stages starting on 1 January

    1995 and ending on 1 January 2005.

    ITCB — International Textiles and Clothing Bureau — Geneva-based group of som e

    20 developing country exporters of textiles and clothing.

    MFA — Multifibre Arrangement (1974-94) under which countries whose m arkets are

    disrupted by increased imports of textiles and clothing from another country were

    able to negotiate quota restrictions.

    swing — When an exporting country transfers part of a quota from one product to

    another restrained product.

    TMB — The Textiles Monitoring Body, consisting of a chairman plus ten members

    acting in a personal capacity, oversees the im plementation of ATC commit ments.

    transitional safeguard mechanism— Allows members to im

    transitional safeguard mechanism

    — Allows members to im

    pose restrictions against

    individual exporting countries if the im imports of a product and im ports country in such increased quantities as to the relevant dom estic industry.porting country can show that both overall from the individual countries are entering the cause — or threaten — serious damage to

    individual exporting countries if the im imports of a product and im ports country in such increased quantities as to the relevant dom estic industry.

    Agriculture/SPS

    Agenda 2000 — EC' s finan cial reform pla ns for 2000 06 aimed at stre ngthe ning the

    union with a view to receiving new members. Includes reform of the CAP (see below).

    border protection — Any m easure which acts to restrain imports at point of entry. BSE — Bov ine spon giform en cephalopathy, or — mad cow disease II.

    box — Category of dom estic support. — Green box: supports considered not to distort trade and therefore permitted with no limits. — Blue box: permitted supports

    linked to production, but subject to production limits and therefore minimally trade-distorting. — Amber box: supports considered to distort trade and therefore subject to reduction commit ments.

    Cairns Group — Group of agricultural exporting nations lobbying for agricultural trade liberalization. It was form ed in 1986 in Cairns, Australia just before the beginning of the Uruguay Round. Current m embership: Argentina, Australia, Bolivia,

    Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatem ala, Indonesia, Malaysia, New

    Zealand, Paraguay, Philippines, South Africa, Thailand and Uruguay.

    CAP — Common Agricultural Policy — The EU ' s comprehensive system of production

    manage agricultural trade withinthat deals with international

    manage agricultural trade within

    that deals with international

    Codex Alimentarius — FAO/WHO commission standards on food

    safety.

    distortion — When prices and production are higher or lower than levels that

    would usually exist in a competitive market.

    deficiency payment — Paid by governments to producers of certain commodities and based on the difference between a target price and the domestic market price or loan rate, whichever is the less.

    EEP — Export enhancement programme — programme of US export subsidies given generally to compete with subsidized agricultural exports from the EU on certain export markets.

    food security — Concept which discourages opening the domestic market to foreign agricultural products on the principle that a country must be as self-sufficient as possible for its basic dietary needs.

    internal support — Encompasses any measure which acts to maintain producer

    prices at levels above those prevailing in international trade; direct payments to producers, including deficiency payments, and input and marketing cost reduction measures available only for agricultural production.

    International Office of Epizootics — Deals with international standards concerning animal health.

    multifunctionality — Idea that agriculture has many functions in addition to producing food and fibre, e.g. environmental protection, landscape preservation, rural employment, etc. See non-trade concerns.

    non-trade concerns — Similar to multifunctionality. The preamble of the Agriculture Agreement specifies food security and environmental protection as examples. Also cited by members are rural development and employment, and poverty alleviation.

    peace clause — Provision in Article 13 of the Agriculture Agreement says agricultural subsidies committed under the agreement cannot be challenged under other WTO agreements, in particular the Subsidies Agreement and GATT.

    Expires at the end of 2003.

    reform process/program — The Uruguay Round Agriculture Agreement starts a

    reform process. It sets out a first step, in the process, i.e. a program for reducing subsidies and protection and other reforms. Current negotiations launched under Article 20 are for continuing the reform process.

    SPS regulations — Sanitary and Phytosanitary regulations — government standards to protect human, animal and plant life and health, to help ensure that food is safe for consumption.

    variable levy — Customs duty rate which varies in response to domestic price

    criterion.

    Intellectual property

    Berne Convention — Treaty, administered by WIPO, for the protection of the

    rights of authors in their literary and artistic works.

    CBD — Convention on Biological Diversity. compulsory licensing — For patents: when the authorities license companies or

    individuals other than the patent owner to use the rights of the patent — to

    make, use, sell or import a product under patent (i.e. a patented product or a product made by a patented process) — without the permission of the patent

    owner . Allowed under the TRIPS Agreement provided certain procedures and conditions are fulfilled. See also government use.

    counterfeit — Unauthorized representation of a registered trademark carried on goods identical or similar to goods for which the trademark is registered, with a view to deceiving the purchaser into believing that he/she is buying the original goods.

    exhaustion — The principle that once a product has been sold on a market, the intellectual property owner no longer has any rights over it. (A debate among

    WTO member governments is whether this applies to products put on the

    market under compulsory licences.) Countries ' lawstovawryheatsher the right continues to be exhausted if the product is imported from one market into another , which affects the owner ' s rights over trade in the protected product. See also parallel imports.

    geographical indications — Place names (or words associated with a place) used

    to identify products (for example, ——Champagne II ,——Tequila oiTI ——Roquefort II which have a particular quality, reputation or other characteristic because they come from that place

    government use — For patents: when the government itself uses or authorizes other persons to use the rights over a patented product or process, for government purposes, without the permission of the patent owner . See also compulsory licensing.

    intellectual property rights — Ownership of ideas, including literary and artistic

    works (protected by copyright), inventions (protected by patents), signs for distinguishing goods of an enterprise (protected by trademarks) and other elements of industrial property.

    IPRs — Intellectual property rights.

    Lisbon Agreement — Treaty, administered by WIPO, for the protection of geographical indications and their international registration.

    Madrid Agreement — Treaty, administered by WIPO, for the repression of false or deceptive indications of source on goods.

    mailbox — Refers to the requirement of the TRIPS Agreement applying to WTO

    members which do not yet provide product patent protection for pharmaceuticals and for agricultural chemicals. Since 1 January 1995, when the

    ― exclusiveWTO agreements entered into force, these countries have to establish a means by which applications of patents for these products can be filed. (An additional requirement says they must also put in place a system for granting marketing rights I

    ― exclusive

    parallel imports — When a product made legally (i.e. not pirated) abroad is imported without the permission of the intellectual property right-holder (e.g.

    the trademark or patent owner). Some countries allow this, others do not.

    Paris Convention — Treaty, administered by WIPO, for the protection of industrial intellectual property, i.e. patents, utility models, industrial designs, etc.

    piracy — Unauthorized copying of materials protected by intellectual property

    rights (such as copyright, trademarks, patents, geographical indications, etc)

    for commercial purposes and unauthorized commercial dealing in copied materials.

    Rome Convention — Treaty, administered by WIPO, UNESCO and ILO, for the

    protection of the works of performers, broadcasting organizations and producers of phonograms.

    TRIPS — Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights.

    UPOV — International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants

    Washington Treaty — Treaty for the protection of intellectual property in respect of lay-out designs of integrated circuits.

    WIPO — World Intellectual Property Organization.

    Investment

    export-performance measure — Requirement that a certain quantity of production must be exported.

    FDI — Foreign direct investment.

    local-content measure — Requirement that the investor purchase a certain amount of local materials for incorporation in the investor ' s product. product-mandating — Requirement that the investor export to certain countries or region.

    trade-balancing measure — Requirement that the investor use earnings from exports to pay for imports.

    TRIMS — Trade-related investment measures.

    Dispute settlement

    Appellate Body — An independent seven-person body that, upon request by one or more parties to the dispute, reviews findings in panel reports.

    automaticity — The ——automatic chrono logical progressi on for settl ing trade disputes in regard to panel establishment, terms of reference, composition and adoption procedures.

    DSB — Dispute Settlement Body — when the WTO General Council meets to

    settle trade disputes.

    DSU — The Uruguay Round Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes.

    nullification and impairment — Damage to a country b'ensefits and expectations

    from its WTO membership through another country ' s change i nai tdsetre g i m e

    or failure to carry out its WTO

    obligations.

    panel — Consisting of three experts, this independent body is established by the

    DSB to examine and issue recommendations on a particular dispute in the light of WTO provisions.

    Services

    accounting rate — In telecoms, the charge made by one country ' s telephone

    network operator for calls originating in another country.

    commercial presence — Having an office, branch, or subsidiary in a foreign country.

    GATS — The WTO ' s General Agreement on Trade in Se rvices.

    general obligations — Obligations which should be applied to all services sector at the entry into force of the agreement.

    Initial commitments — Trade liberalizing commitments in services which members are prepared to make early on.

    modes of delivery — How international trade in services is supplied and

    consumed. Mode 1: cross border supply; mode 2: consumption abroad; mode 3: foreign commercial presence; and mode 4: movement of natural persons.

    multi-modal — Transportation using more than one mode. In the GATS negotiations, essentially door-to-door services that include international shipping.

    national schedules — The equivalent of tariff schedules in GATT, laying down the commitments accepted — voluntarily or through negotiation — by WTO members.

    natural persons — People, as distinct from juridical persons such as companies and organizations.

    offer — A country ' s proposal for further liberalization. protocols — Additional agreements attached to the GATS. The Second Protocol deals with the 1995 commit ments on financial services. The Third Protocol deals with movement of natural persons.

    prudence, prudential — In financial services, terms used to describe an objective of market regulation by authorities to protect investors and depositors, to avoid instability or crises.

    schedule — — Schedule of Specific Commitments II — A WTO member ' s list of

    commitments regarding market access and bindings regarding national treatment.

    specific commitments — See — schedule I.

    Regionalism/trade and development

    Group of 71 countries withpreferentialtradingrelationwith the EU underthe formerLom? Treaty nowACP — African, Caribbean and Pacific countries.

    Group of 71 countries with

    preferential

    trading

    relation

    with the EU under

    the former

    Lom? Treaty now

    called the Cotonou Agreement.

    , Peru and Venezuela.The seven ASEAN members ofAndean Community — Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador APEC —

    , Peru and Venezuela.

    The seven ASEAN members of

    ASEAN — Association of Southeast Asian Nations.

    the WTO — Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar , the Philippines, Singapore

    and Thailand — often speak in the WTO as one group o

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